Question type - Multiple choice

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Contents


Short description

This question type can collect input of multiple selections through checkboxes.
M multiple options.png


Core settings

Default values (defaults)

Description

This lets you set the default values for some list question type, multiple choice question types and text question type (New in 1.92 ) .


Valid values

  • For single choice questions, you will see drop-down boxes letting you select the desired default.
  • For multi choice questions, you will see check boxs letting you select the desired default state (checked or not-checked).
  • For text-entry questions (New in 1.92 ), you will have a text entry field in which you can enter any string or expression. If you use an expression, you need to include curly braces.

Example

  • You have a non-anonymous survey, where {TOKEN:ATTRIBUTE_1} is the person's age as of the time the tokens table was created. You want to prefill a question with the person's age and ask them to validate that the age is accurate, or let them change the age value if it is not accurate. In the text entry field for the default value, you would enter {TOKEN:ATTRIBUTE_1}

Caution with default value and hidden question

  • If you have hidden question with default value, this default value is set only when the user come to the step of this question. This mean that if whole group his hidden, then no default value is set, or if you are in question by question mode, no default value is set.
  • For hidden question, an alternative solution can be used Expression manager with assignment operator.



Mandatory (mandatory)

Description

This option lets you require that all parts of the question be answered. If you have a question with multiple sub-questions, and want to require that some but not all parts be answered, use the min_answers question attribute instead.

Valid values

  • Yes
  • No (default)



Option 'Other' (other)

Description

This option is used by multiple choice-type questions and gives you the ability to ask for a selection that is not part of the enumerated answer list.

Valid values

  • Yes
  • No (default)


These Core Settings are available in Version 1.92 and beyond

Relevance equation

Notice.png
Hint: This features is available starting in version 1.92


Description

If the value of the relevance equation is "1" or "true", the question is "relevant" in the survey context, i.e. it is shown to the survey participant. If not, the question is hidden. All questions let you specify a relevance equation. Relevance is the successor to conditions and supports much more complex conditional logic.

Syntax Highlighting

Whenever you save the relevance equation, it will be evaluated and syntax-highlighted. Any errors will be color coded so that you can quickly detect and fix them.

Valid values

Any equation, using Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces.

Examples

Here are good examples of syntax highlighting


Advanced settings

Hide tip (hide_tip)

Description

Most questions will usually include a tip that says "Please choose one of the following options" or similar hint text how to fill out the question. This attribute allows you to turn off this tips/hints.

Notice.png
Hint: This feature changed with version 1.92
 these tips include the validation criteria messages, (such as min/max number of answers, min/max/equals sum value).  If hide_tip is true, they will be initially hidden; but if the user enters invalid data, the tips will appear, color coded red to indicate the error.  Once the validation criteria are met, the color coding will change to green, but the tips will not disappear.

Available options

  • Yes
  • No (default)



Label for 'Other:' option (other_replace_text)

Notice.png
Hint: This features is available starting in version 1.80


Description

Short text string to replace the text "Other" as the label for other.

Example

Entering a value of "Alternative:" for this attribute would result in the word "Alternative:" being used for the label for the "Other" option instead of the word "Other". It is extremely important to note that this question attribute should only be used in single-language surveys. Prior to version 1.80, if used in multiple language surveys, the same question attribute value will be used no matter which language is being displayed.

In version 1.80 and later, a translation will be attempted but will only be successful if the translation already exists in the alternate language file (ie: translation cannot be made on a survey-by-survey basis). This means: to translate your other text you have to add your other_replace_text to the english .mo file (because this is LimeSurveys baselanguage) and translate this String in each of your surveys languages .mo files.



Display columns (display_columns)

Description

This setting allows you to display the answers options for the question in more than 1 column. Add this attribute, and a value indicating the number of columns you wish the question to use. The number of columns should be limited on the number of answers (so empty or near-empty columns are not created).

Included template are set to use 8 column max. If you need more column, you have to use and adapt your own template.

Valid values

  • Any positive integer value greater than 0

Examples

  • If you have 3 answers options, and you want to show these horizontally instead of vertically just set this option to '3'.
  • If you have 6 answers options, and you want to show these in two columns (3 per column) then set this option to '2'.



Randomization group name (random_group)

Notice.png
Hint: This features is available starting in version 1.92


Description

Place questions into a specified randomization group, all questions included in the specified group will appear in a random order.

Valid values

Just enter any string you like (for example: 'group1'). All question which have set the same string will have their place in the survey randomized (=randomly exchanged among each other).



Random answer order (random_order)

Description

This attribute causes LimeSurvey to ignore the existing order of answer options/subquestions, and instead it orders them randomly. It is important to note that this random order will be reordered each time the question is displayed, so if someone returns to a question, the order will probably be different from the first time they saw it. Having the answers display randomly is useful to remove the possibility of bias from answers to questions. Please note that if a question has subquestions the order of subquestions will be randomized, not the order of the answer options.

Available options

  • Randomize on each page load
  • Off (default)



Always hide this question (hidden)

Description

If you prefill a question by URL you can use this setting to hide the question and its value from the survey participant at all. This overrides any conditions because the particular question is never even embedded in a page. If you just want to hide a question (for example if you want to store a value calculated on the fly) then use Javascript embedded in the question source code.

Notice.png
Hint: The question are not diplay in HTML, it can be set with an equation question or survey URL, but not in javascript

Available options

  • On
  • Off (default)



Minimum answers (min_answers)

Description

Can be used to ensure that a user selects at least a certain number of answers in a multiple choice question.

Valid values

  • Any integer value above 0
Notice.png
Hint: This feature changed with version 1.92
  • Any number
  • Any SGQA code
  • Any question code (variable name)
  • Any equation, using Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces.

Example

If set to 3, the user will only be able to submit the survey form if they have selected at least three check-boxes. In ranking questions, this ensures that at least three items are ranked. Please note that if you use this attribute with Ranking questions please set the question to non-mandatory - because when you leave it at mandatory all items need to be ranked which is counter-active to this feature.



Maximum answers (max_answers)

Description

Can be used to limit the total number of answers a user can select in a multiple choice question.

Valid values

  • Any number value
  • Any SGQA code (New in 1.92 )
  • Any question code (variable name) (New in 1.92 )
  • Any equation, using Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces. (New in 1.92 )

Example

If set to 2, the user will only be able to check at most 2 checkboxes or 1 checkbox + fill the Other field (if any). At ranking questions the participant would be able to only select 2 items at most.



Assessment value (assessment_value)

Description

If assessments are used and one of the subquestions is marked, then for each marked subquestion this value is assumed as assessment value.




Array exclusion filter (array_filter_exclude)

Description

The Array filter exclusion advanced setting allows you to use a multiple choice question to select or set which responses won't display in a subsequent list, array or multiple choice question.

Starting in 1.92, subsequent questions can be filtered on any array question types, including:
  • Multiple choice
  • Multiple choice with comments
  • Multiple short text
  • Multiple numeric
  • Array (5 point, 10 point, Yes/No/Unknown, Increase/Same/Decrease, Column)
  • Array (Dual Scale, Text, Numbers)
  • Ranking

Furthermore, each of these types of questions can filtered.

The only exception is Array (Column), which can filter other questions, but can not itself be filtered.

To set a filter

Enter the question code of a multiple options question to use as the source information. For example, if your source multiple option question code is "Q1" enter "Q1" into 'Array filter exclusion' input in the advanced settings of the question you want to filter.

Starting in 1.92, you can enter multiple array_filter_exclude options for a single question, separated by semicolons

The source question has to contain exactly the same list of answers/subquestion as the question you wish to filter. Your question will then only display those answers/subquestion that were not selected in the multiple options question.

If the questions do not have exactly the same set of answers/subquestions and codes, then the filters will break.

Starting in 1.92, if Q2 has sub-questions that are not present in Q1, they will always be displayed rather than breaking the filters.

Cascading

The Array filter exclusions settings will cascade – that is you can select a question which filters another question, which filters another question, and so on.

Example

Ticking items 'One' and 'Three' in the first question results in those questions not being displayed in the subsequent question which uses array filter exclusion

Multi Option Question

Code:Q1

Question: Which animals do you like?

1 Cat

2 Dog

3 Zebra

Array 5 Point Choice Question



Array filter (array_filter)

Description

The Array filter advanced settings allow you to use any multiple choice question to select or set which responses display in a subsequent list, array or multiple choice question.

Starting in 1.92, subsequent questions can be filtered on any array question types, including:
  • Multiple choice
  • Multiple choice with comments
  • Multiple short text
  • Multiple numeric
  • Array (5 point, 10 point, Yes/No/Unknown, Increase/Same/Decrease, Column)
  • Array (Dual Scale, Text, Numbers)
  • Ranking

Furthermore, each of these types of questions can filtered.

The only exception is Array (Column), which can filter other questions, but can not itself be filtered.

To set a filter

Enter the question code of a multiple options question to use as the source information into the setting for array filter. For example, if your source multiple option question code is "Q1" enter "Q1" into either the 'Array Filter' input or the 'Array Filter Exclusion' input in the advanced settings of the question you want to filter. Only answer options that are selected in question Q1 will be visible in the array_filter-ed question.

Starting in 1.92, you can enter multiple array_filter options for a single question, separated by semicolons

Array filter question settings require the questions being used to have exactly matching lists of answers. If the questions do not have exactly the same set of answers and codes, then the filters will break.

Starting in 1.92, if Q2 has sub-questions that are not present in Q1, they will always be displayed rather than breaking the filters.

Cascading

The Array filter will cascade – that is you can select a question which filters another question, which filters another question, and so on.

Array filter example

Ticking items ‘One’, ‘Three’ and ‘Four’ in the first question results in the entries 'One', 'Three' and 'Four' displaying in the subsequent question which uses array filter

Multi option question

Code:Q1

Question: Which animals do you like?

1 Cat

2 Dog

3 Zebra

Array 5 Point Choice Question

Code:Q2

Question: Rate these animals on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is I like them a little and 5 is I like them a lot

Array filter example 2 - Using Multiple Short Text

Note: This features is available starting in version 1.92

Array filter with multipe short text.jpg

Here is the Limesurvey Group file for the above demo

limesurvey_group_32.lsg

Array filter example 3 - Cascading Array Filters

This sample survey shows use of array_filter, array_filter_exclude, and exclude_all_others, plus cascading array filters.

ls2_cascading_array_filter.lss



'Other:' comment mandatory (other_comment_mandatory)

Description

Only applies to mandatory questions having an 'other answer' in which the participant can give a free text response ('other comment').

When this setting is activated and the participant selects the other answer (the 'other checkbox' or 'other answer in a list'), then he will have to give a comment in the 'Other comment' input box in order to proceed to next page.

Note that this option is not available for Multiple Choice questions because the Other checkbox status is not recorded in DB for this question type, only the content of the other text input is recorded. This means that checking the other checkbox is just a visual effect that is only meaningfull if the text box is filled in: that is why other_comment_mandatory is assumed to be set for this question type.

Example

If activated for a "Multiple options with comments" question and the user enters a value in the left part of the Other answer but doesn't enter text in the Other Comment part, a warning message will be displayed when he tries to proceed to the next page.



Numbers only for 'Other' (other_numbers_only)

Description

Allow only numerical input for 'Other' text



Exclusive option (exclude_all_others)

Description

This attribute takes the Code of an answer in a multiple option question so that when clicked this checkbox will uncheck all others and make them read-only (=disabled). It was created specifically to ensure data integrity when one of the multiple options in a multiple option question implies no other choices apply. (ie: None of the above).

It is also possible to have multiple exclusive options. These must be separated by semicolons.

Notice.png
Hint: This feature changed with version 1.92


This feature marks the other attributes as irrelevant. They are shown as disabled, and their values are NULLed in the database

Example

Just enter the according answers code like

  • version <= 1.86: exclude_all_others Ax
  • version >= 1.87: (Exclusive option): Ax

"Ax" is the code you assigned to a certain answer, so if your code for a certain answer is "none" you have to enter "none". At old versions you have to select the according attribute from the drop-down list AND enter the answer code, at later versions simply add the answer code at the "Exclusive option" text field.

Example - multiple exclusive options

Say your multiple choice question asking which medical diagnoses you have had, with options A-Z, plus 8 for "Refused" and 9 for "None"; and you want to make both of those options exclusive. You would enter the following into the exclude_all_others field:

8;9



Auto-check exclusive option if all others are checked (exclude_all_others_auto)

Description

If the participant marks all options, uncheck all and check the option set in the "Exclusive option" setting.




SPSS export scale type (scale_export)

Description

Used for SPSS export only. This attribute overrides the default scale guessed by SPSS. To learn what the different measurement scales do, please read the related SPSS documentation.

Available options

  • Default (default)
  • Nominal
  • Ordinal
  • Scale



Show in public statistics (public_statistics)

Description

This attribute allows the admin to chose if the results of a particular question should be shown to the survey participant after he/she has the submitted he survey. Please note that in general to show statistics to the participant the survey setting 'Public statistics' has to be enabled!

The default setting for each question is 'No' (=Do not show statistics of this question to the user). You have to enable this for every single question if you want to show the survey statistics of that particular question to the participant after the survey submission.

Available options

  • Yes
  • No (default)



Insert page break in printable view (page_break)

Description

This attribute is only active when you actually print a survey from the Printable View. It forces a page break before the question. (Only the Opera browser does not need this since it handles the page breaks accordingly.)

Available options

  • Yes
  • No (default)


These Advanced Settings are available in Version 1.92 and beyond

QS:Array filter style