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Type de question : Tableau

From LimeSurvey Manual

This page is a translated version of the page Question type - Array and the translation is 11% complete.

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Description courte

An array allows you to create a set of subquestions. Each of them uses the same set of answer options. For example, you can use this question type when you need feedback on several aspects of a particular product.

Description générale

In the below example, the array question type is used in order to rate four sci-fi movies:

F AFL.jpg


Example: Question type - Array using flexible labels.zip




A further option available is the Semantic Differential. You have to choose either Array or Array (5 point choice) as question type to part the answer by using a pipe char "|" - which answer should be on the left side and which one on the right side of the array. For example, If you want to have 'Good' on the left side of the row and 'Evil' on the right side of the row, just write 'Good|Evil' into the answer field:


H SD.jpg


Example: Question type - Array - Semantic Differential Question Type.zip

Help.png Hint: If you use Windows and you do not know where the Pipe Char is on your keyboard, you can enter it by pressing and holding Alt key, entering 124, and releasing the Alt key.


General options

Mandatory

Description

This option allows the survey administrators to request their respondents to answer to certain survey questions. If the mandatory questions are not answered, the respondents will not be able to proceed further. If you have a question with multiple subquestions and you require only certain subquestions to be answered, use the minimum answer attribute located under the Logic tab.

Available options

  • On
  • Off (default)


Relevance equation

Description

If the value of the relevance equation is "1" or "true", the question is "relevant" in the survey context, i.e. it is shown to the survey participant. If not, the question is hidden. Any survey question allows you to specify a relevance equation. This function is the successor of conditions and supports much more complex conditional logic.

Syntax Highlighting

Whenever you save the relevance equation, it is evaluated and syntax-highlighted. Any errors will be color coded so that you can quickly detect and fix them.

Notice.png
Hint: To check if all the relevance equations are used correctly within your survey, read about our show logic file feature.


Valid values

  • Any equation that makes use of the Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces.

Examples

Here are good examples of syntax highlighting.


Display

(Sub)question width (subquestion_width)

Description

This value sets the subquestion column width by using a percentage system. For example, if you set this to value 60, then 60 percent of the question width will be used for the subquestion text (the most left column). The remaining width will be equally divided between the answer options.

Valid values

  • Any integer value from 1 to 100.



Random answer order (random_order)

Important.png
Attention : The order of randomization is currently not stored. So if the user is given the option to save/resume later the order will randomly change on resume.

Description

This attribute causes LimeSurvey to ignore the existing order of answer options/subquestions, and instead it orders them randomly. It is important to note that this random order will be reordered each time the question is displayed. So, if someone returns to a question, the order will probably be different from the first time she saw it. This option permits the survey creator to diminish the survey bias. Please note that if a question has subquestions, the order of subquestions will be randomized, not the order of the answer options.

Available options

  • Yes - Randomize on each page load
  • No (default)


Repeat headers (repeat_headers)

Description

This option can be used if you add to a question a high number of subquestions. If this is the case, use this option in order to tell LimeSurvey after how many subquestions should the headers be repeated.

Valid values

  • Any integer values;
  • The default value is 0 - the repeat headers function is deactivated.


Question theme (question_theme)

Description

It allows you to use customized themes for the respective question.

Available options

  • Your created question themes which are located under the Question themes in the Themes panel.
Help.png Note: This feature is under development at the moment.


Hide tip (hide_tip)

Description

Most questions will usually include a tip that says "Please choose one of the following options" or a hint text on how to fill out the question. This attribute allows you to turn off or on this tips/hints.

These tips/hints include validation criteria messages (such as min/max number of answers, min/max/equals sum value). If hide_tip is enabled, these messages will be hidden. However, if the user enters invalid data, the tips will appear. They will be coloured in red, getting changed to green once the validation criteria are met.

Available options

  • On - the tips/hints are hidden;
  • Off (default).


Always hide this question (hidden)

Description

If enabled, the question will always be hidden - it will not be displayed to the survey participants. This function can be used in the following scenarios:

  • If you wish to prefill a question with a URL and you want not to have it displayed on the screen. This overrides any conditions used within the survey because the respective question will not even be embedded on the page.
  • If you wish to store or calculate a value on the fly via the Expression Manager.
Help.png Note: A common question type that is used with this function is the Equation one.

Available options

  • On
  • Off (default)


CSS class (css_class)

Description

If you want to add special CSS classes to certain questions, you can enter the CSS class name(s) in this box. Make sure you leave an empty space between different class names.

Valid values

  • Any text string with a space between different CSS class names.
Notice.png
Hint: You can also insert an expression in this box (New in 3.0.0 ). Remember that the output of the expression will not be updated dynamically.


Important.png
According to the W3C, CSS class names can contain only the characters [a-zA-Z, and 0-9] and ISO 10646 characters U+00A1 and higher, plus the hyphen (-) and the underscore (_). They cannot start with a digit, or a hyphen followed by a digit. LimeSurvey encodes CSS classes, but it does not fix it totally.


Use dropdown boxes (use_dropdown)

Description

If this function is enabled, the answer options layout will use dropdown boxes instead of radio buttons.

Available options

  • On - dropdown boxes are used.
  • Off (default) - radio buttons are used.


Relevance help for printable survey (printable_survey_relevance_help)

Description

If you wish to print a survey, you can also print the relevance equations for each question. But, if you wish to offer instead an explanation rather than the expression on the printed form, fill in this box with the text explanation for the relevance equation.

Valid values

  • Any text and/or numbers you wish to be displayed on the printable form.


Logic

Minimum answers (min_answers)

Description

This function can be used to ensure that a user selects at least a certain number of answers in a multiple choice question.

Valid values

  • Any integer value above 0
  • Any number
  • Any SGQA code
  • Any question code (variable name)
  • Any equation, using Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces.

Example

If set to X (a random number), the users can submit the survey form if they select at least X checkboxes. If this option is utilised for ranking questions, this ensures that at least three items are ranked before allowing the respondent to submit the answers/survey.

Help.png Please note that if you use this attribute with Ranking questions, you have to set the question to non-mandatory. Otherwise, all the items need to be ranked which is counter-intuitive if you decide to use the min_answers function too.



Maximum answers (max_answers)

Description

It can be used to limit the total number of answers a user can select in a multiple choice question.

Valid values

  • Any number value
  • Any SGQA code
  • Any question code (variable name)
  • Any equation, using Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces.

Example

If set to 2, the user will only be able to check at most two checkboxes or one checkbox + fill the "Other" field (if any). For the Ranking question type, the participant would be able to select maximum two items.



Array filter (array_filter)

Description

The Array filter setting allows you to use any multiple choice question to select or set which responses are displayed in a subsequent list, array or multiple choice question.

The subsequent questions can be filtered on any array question type, including:
  • Multiple choice
  • Multiple choice with comments
  • Multiple short text
  • Multiple numeric
  • Array (5 point, 10 point, Yes/No/Unknown, Increase/Same/Decrease, Column)
  • Array (Dual Scale, Text, Numbers)
  • Ranking

Furthermore, each of these question types can be filtered.

The only exception is Array (Column), which can filter other questions, but not itself.

How to set a filter

To set a filter, enter the question code of a multiple options question in the array filter box of the question you are currently editing. The respective question will be used as the source of information for the current question, the selected answers from the previous question being retrieved and used as answer options for the current question. For example, if your source multiple option question code is "Q1", enter "Q1" into the 'Array Filter' box to start the filtering process of the answers. Only the answer options that are selected in question Q1 will be visible in the array_filter-ed question.

If you wish more questions to be filtered via this option, type the question codes in the box separated by semicolons (;).
Important.png
The subquestion codes used in the first question must coincide with the subquestion codes from the second one. Otherwise, the array filter function will not filter the answers to the first question. Check the below example to better understand how the whole system works.

Cascading

The selected options can be displayed in cascade. This means that you can select a question which filters another question, which filters another question, and so on.

Array filter example

Let's take a look at the following example to better understand the power of this setting:


Array filter with multipe short text.jpg


In the screenshot from above, we got two questions. The first one is a multiple short text question type, while the second one is an array dual scale question type. The answers you provide in the first question will be listed in the second one. Technically, the answers you provide to the subquestions from the first question are filtered and displayed in the second question.

This example can be downloaded from the following link: limesurvey_group_32.lsg. Import this question group into your LimeSurvey installation.



Array filter style (array_filter_style)

Description

This function allows you to choose how the array filtered subquestions are displayed. They can either be "hidden" or "disabled".

Help.png To learn how to filter subquestions, please read the following wiki section.

Available options

  • Hidden (default) - if this option is selected, then the previously selected subquestions will not be displayed in the second question.
  • Disabled - if this option is selected, then the previously selected subquestions will be greyed out and become unselectable.

Example

If you wish to use the "disabled" option, then the previously selected subquestions will be displayed like this:

Array filter style disabled.png



Array exclusion filter (array_filter_exclude)

Description

The Array filter exclusion setting allows you to use any multiple choice question to select or set which responses are NOT displayed in a subsequent list, array or multiple choice question.

The subsequent questions can be filtered on any array question type, including:
  • Multiple choice
  • Multiple choice with comments
  • Multiple short text
  • Multiple numeric
  • Array (5 point, 10 point, Yes/No/Unknown, Increase/Same/Decrease, By column)
  • Array (Dual Scale, Text, Numbers)
  • Ranking

Furthermore, each of these types of questions can filtered.

The only exception is Array by column which can filter other questions, but it cannot be filtered.

How to set it up

Enter the question code of a multiple options question in the array exclusion filter box of the question you are currently editing. The respective question will be used as the source of information for the current question, the non-selected answers from the previous question being retrieved and used as answer options for the current question. For example, if your source multiple option question code is "Q1", enter "Q1" into the 'Array exclusion filter' box to start the filtering process of the answers. Only the answer options that are NOT selected in question Q1 will be visible in your question.

If you wish more questions to be filtered via this option, type the question codes in the box separated by semicolons (;).
Important.png
The subquestion codes used in the first question must coincide with the subquestion codes from the second one. Otherwise, the array exclusion filter function will not filter the answers to the first question. Check the below example to better understand how the whole system works.

Cascading

The selected options can be displayed in cascade. This means that you can select a question which filters another question, which filters another question, and so on.

Example

Let's see together the below example:


Example array filter exclude.png


In the screenshot from above, we got two questions. The first one is a multiple choice question type, while the second one is a multiple choice with comments question type. The answers you provide in the first question will be excluded from the second one. For example, if you select the ComfortUpdate option (that has the subquestion code 'SQ1') and the Plugin option ('SQ4'), the 'SQ1' and the 'SQ4' subquestion correspondents from the second question will be excluded. In our screenshot, we can observe that only the unselected options in the first question and displayed in the second one.

This example can be downloaded from the following link: Limesurvey_group_array_filter_exclude.zip. Import this question group into your LimeSurvey installation.


Exclusive option (exclusive_option)

Description

The exclusive option attribute takes the code of an answer in a multiple option question so that when clicked on the its corresponding checkbox, all the other previously checked options will get unchecked and get marked as read-only (=disabled). This function was created to ensure the data integrity when one of the multiple options in a multiple option question implies that no other option can be selected too. Basically, this feature marks the other attributes as being irrelevant.

It is also possible to have multiple exclusive options. These must be separated by semicolons.

Example

For a short explanation on answer codes, check first the following wiki section. Once understood, introduce the "AnswerCode" that will trigger the function once selected.

Below, you may see an example where the exclusive option attribute is used.

You can see in the first screenshot that some non-LimeSurvey options are selected:


Part 1 example exclusive option.png


If you click on the marked option (which is entered in the exclusive option box), the other options will get unmarked and disabled, being left only with the current option checked:


Part 2 example exclusive option.png


To take a closer look at our example, import the .lsq file into your LimeSurvey installation:

File:Example exclusive option question.zip.



Randomization group name (random_group)

Description

It places the questions into a specified randomization group, all questions included in the specified group being displayed in a random order to the survey respondents.

Valid values

Just enter any string you like (for example: 'group1'). All question which have set the same string within the randomization group name box will have their place in the survey randomized (=randomly exchanged among each other).



Question validation equation (em_validation_q)

Description

This is an equation that is used to validate the entire question (e.g, all of its parts collectively for a multi-answer question). If the question fails the validation criteria, then em_validation_q_tip message will be displayed (it uses the CSS style .error). This tip uses the .em_q_fn_validation CSS style, which is hidden by default within template.css.

The main difference between this feature and the subquestion validation equations (em_validation_sq option) is that for this feature, if the question (or question parts) fail validation, then an error message could be shown. For the subquestion validation, each text entry cell (e.g., in an array question type, but it can also be applied to single entry question types) will be styled so that the background color is (light) red.

Valid values

  • Any equation that makes use of the Expression Manager syntax, without surrounding curly braces.

Example

  • You want to collect demographic information from users via a multiple short text question, and you want to validate that the user has entered a valid email address and phone number.

This example shows how the question looks with invalid answers:

Validation-invalid-both.jpg

And here is what it looks like with one invalid answer:

Validation-invalid-phone.jpg

Here is how you edit a question to enter that information:

Validation-gui.jpg

And here is part of the Show Logic File output that lets you check the accuracy of your expression and ensure that there are no syntax errors:

Validation-logic.jpg

As you can see, the validation equation tests that both the email and phone number are either empty or match a regular expression filter.

The validation tip only shows the warning message if the phone or email appears invalid.

Notice.png
Hint: In order to create complex validation messages, read about the usage of the Expression Manager.


If you wish to import the example from above into your LimeSurvey installation, download the following .lsq file: Em_validation_q_example.zip.

Notice.png
Hint: Remember, LimeSuvey uses the Perl syntax for regular expressions, so they should start and end with / (slash character)!



Tip for whole question validation equation (em_validation_q_tip)

Description

If you are using the question validation equation, you can use this box in order to display an optional message as question tip on how the question has to be filled out.

Valid values

Example

See the example from the question validation equation wiki section- it shows how the tip can be tailored to show which parts of a multiple short text question fail the validation criteria.


Other

Insert page break in printable view (page_break)

Description

This attribute is only active when you actually print a survey from the Printable View. It forces a page break before the question.

Available options

  • On
  • Off (default)



SPSS export scale type (scale_export)

Description

This is used for SPSS export only. This attribute overrides the default scale guessed by SPSS. To learn what the different measurement scales do, please read the related SPSS documentation.

Available options

  • Default (default)
  • Nominal
  • Ordinal
  • Scale


Statistics

Show in public statistics (public_statistics)

Description

This attribute allows the survey administrator to chose if a particular question results should be displayed to the survey participants after they submitted the survey.

Help.png Note: To have the statistics displayed on the last page, do not forget to enable this functionality from the presentation & navigation settings. Otherwise, no statistics link will be displayed at the end of your survey.

The default setting for each question is 'Off' (=Do not show the question statistics to the respondents). You have to enable this for every single question if you want to show the survey statistics of that (those) particular question(s) to the survey participants after the survey submission.

Available options

  • On
  • Off (default)



Display chart (display_chart)

Description

This attribute allows the survey administrator to choose if a chart that contains the question results should be displayed to the survey participants after they filled out the survey.

Help.png Note: To have the chart displayed on the last page, you have to enable the following options:


Available options

  • On
  • Off (default)



Chart type (chart_type)

Description

This attribute allows the survey administrator to choose which type of chart will be displayed to the respondent once he/she finished filling out the survey.

Help.png Note: Do not forget to change the question and survey settings in order to have the charts displayed at the end on the survey. For more details, check the wiki section on the display chart question attribute.

Available options

  • Bar chart
  • Pie chart
  • Radar
  • Line
  • PolarArea
  • Doughnut